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Spanish Linking Words

Linking words or connecting words help you to build a logical argument in your text by linking one statement to another. A text without linking words reads like a series of unrelated statements with no flow.

Linking words can be used to:

- Link the flow of ideas in your writing

- Guide your reader towards the next stage of your argument

- Link paragraphs together.

 

To get used to these important words, I am providing a list of commonly used Spanish linking words which I have divided into 6 groups:

 

1. Adición (Addition)

2. Oposición (Opposition)

3. Causa (Cause)

4. Consequencia (Consequence)

5. Dar ejemplos (Giving examples)

6. Resumiendo (Summarising)

 

1.Adición (Addition) 

When we want to add ideas or to give more information about the same idea we use the following connectors:

 

 

Linking Word

y

Además

También

Además de

Incluso

 

and

also, moreover, furthermore, in addition

too, as well

as well as

even

Y - Ideas are often linked by “y”. In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before “y”.

Él vive en un pueblo bonito, tranquilo y acogedor (He lives in a nice, quiet and welcoming village)

Además - It is used to add an extra idea or emphasis as well as extra information to the point you are making.

Además hablamos de marketing (We also spoke about marketing)

Debe dinero al banco, y además no puedo pagar su hipoteca (He owes money to the bank and furthermore can’t pay his mortgage)

También - Ella es una trabajadora y también una estudiante (She’s a worker and a student too)

Además de - Además de ser barata, es preciosa (As well as being cheap, it’s also beautiful)

Incluso - Estaba toda su familia, incluso sus abuelos (All his family was there, even the grandparents)

There are many more linking words used to express addition that I have not included: Igualmente, hasta, encima, por si fuera poco, para colmo, ni siquiera…

 

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2. Oposición (Opposition) 

The next connectors are used when we are contrasting ideas.

 

 

Linking Word

Pero

Sin embargo

Aunque

No obstante

A pesar de (que)

 

but

however

although

nevertheless

despite/in spite of

Pero - Me gustaría jugar hoy al tenis, pero me duele el brazo (I would like to play tennis today, but my arm hurts)

Sin embargo - En su familia todos son altos, sin embargo, ella es baja (In her family all are tall, however, she is short)

Aunque - Aunque come mucho no sube de peso (Although she eats a lot she doesn’t put weight on)

No obstante - La empresa va bien. No obstante, este año no va a crecer (The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year)

A pesar de (que) - A pesar de que la empresa está yendo bien, no se van a contratar empleados nuevos (Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees)

There are many more linking words used to express addition that I have not included: Pese a (que), si bien, ahora bien, aún así…

 

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3. Causa (Cause) 

 

Linking Word

Porque

Como

A causa de (que)

Debido a (que)

Dado que

Ya que

Puesto que

Gracias a (que)

Por culpa (de)

 

because

as

because of

due to, because of

since, given that

since, because

since, as

thanks to

because of

 

Porque - “Porque" is a connector that is usually used in the middle of the sentence in both formal or informal situations.

Traje un paraguas porque estaba lloviendo cuando salí (I brought an umbrella because it was raining when I left)

Como - "Como" is usually used at the beginning of a sentence with a comma between the first and second statement.

Como estaba lloviendo cuando salí, traje un paraguas (As it was raining when I left, I brought an umbrella)

A causa de (que) - It is used in the middle or beginning of a sentence.

A causa de la contaminación no se puede nadar en el río (Because of the contamination you can not swim in the river)

Debido a (que) - Debido a la lluvia, no pudimos jugar a tenis (Due to rain, we could not play tennis)

These last three connectors mean that the cause is known by the interlocutor:

Dado que, ya que, puesto que -  They are more formal than "como" and "porque", and we can use them in the middle or beginning of a sentence.

Dado que la inflación fue del 30 % tuvimos que pedir un aumento de salario (Since inflation was 30% we had to ask for a raise)

Llámale hoy, ya que mañana se irá de vacaciones (Call him today, because tomorrow he'll be on holiday)

No pude llamar a la policía puesto que me había quedado sin batería en el móvil (I could not call the police because my phone had run out of battery)

Gracias a (que) - We use this connector when the connotation is positive.

Gracias a ese club, conocí a muchas personas agradables (Thanks to this club, I met many nice people)

Gracias a que me asocié a ese club, conocí a muchas personas agradables (Because I joined this club, I met many nice people).

Por culpa (de) - We use this connector when the connotation is negative.

Por culpa de la tormenta, se cortó la luz (Because of the storm, the power went off)

Por culpa de que llovió, se cortó la luz (Because it rained, it went off)

 

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4. Consecuencia (Consequence) 

These connectors are to express the consequences of the information previously given and they are all used in a similar way.

 

 

Linking Word

Entonces

Así que

Por lo tanto/por eso

En consecuencia

 

then

so

therefore

in consequence

Entonces - Si no les queda en blanco, entonces cógelo en azul (If there isn’t any white left, then take the blue one)

Por lo tanto - Marcos se fue de vacaciones, por lo tanto cerró la tienda (Marcos went on vacation, so he closed the store)

Así que - Se peleaban a menudo, así que se separaron (They fought often, so they separated)

There are many more linking words used to express addition that I have not included: Por consiguiente, de manera que, por eso, así pues...

 

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5. Dar ejemplos (Giving examples)

 

Linking Word

Por ejemplo

A saber

 

for example, for instance

namely

Por ejemplo - The most common way of giving examples is by using “por ejemplo”.

Él es muy atento. Por ejemplo, le compró flores a ella como sorpresa (He’s always being thoughtful. For example, he bought her flower as a surprise)

A saber - refers to something by name.

Hay dos problemas: a saber, el gasto y el tiempo (There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time)

 

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6. Resumiendo (Summarising)

We normally use these words at the beginning of the sentence to give a summary of what we have said or written.

 

Linking Word

Para resumir

Para finalizar

En pocas palabras

En resumen

En definitiva

 

to summarise

to conclude

in short

in summary

in brief

 

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Click here for a large list of linking words both Spanish and English.

 

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR

 

Marino GuerreroMARINO GUERRERO

Marino Guerrero is a tutor of Spanish as a foreign language, dedicated to providing one-to-one Spanish lessons all over London and world wide through Skype.

 

 

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